Research Programs

Recovery from Autism

Recovery from autism exists and has been a regular occurrence in top-quality ABA programs for a few decades. Early intensive behavioral intervention (i.e., 30 or more hours per week of one-to-one ABA, starting before the age of 4, and continuing for 2 or more years) brings about recovery for some individuals. In 2009, CARD published the first study to document recovery in a relatively large sample of individuals with autism. In addition, CARD is engaged in several lines of research on recovery on an ongoing basis, in order to further document it and evaluate variables that contribute to it, as well as to identify early predictor variables. A substantial portion (somewhere just over half) of individuals do not recover, even after having received the best possible treatment available. For this reason, it is important to underscore that recovery is not the only goal of ABA. In fact, the goal of a quality ABA program is to help each individual fulfill his/her maximum potential.

In Evidence-Based Treatment for Individual with Autism: The CARD Model, we describe how CARD defines recovery:

At CARD, we define recovery from ASD as follows: A person can be said to have recovered from ASD if that person once had a confirmed ASD diagnosis and then, after receiving treatment, no longer demonstrates clinically significant impairment. In plain English, an individual has recovered from ASD when there is nothing left to treat.For the purposes of research and documentation, we use the following method of measuring recovery.

A person can be said to have recovered from ASD if he demonstrates all of the following:

  1. Scores in the average range (no more than one standard deviation below the mean) on standardized assessments of intelligence, language, adaptive skills, and social skills
  2. Receives passing grades in regular education without any supports or modifications (unmodified curriculum in a regular education classroom with no aide)
  3. Is evaluated by a medical doctor or licensed psychologist, who is an expert in diagnosing ASD, and does not meet diagnostic criteria for any ASD based on the current level of functioning

Assessment and Treatment of Challenging Behaviors

Challenging behaviors such as aggression, disruption, and self-injury are common in individuals with autism. CARD continues to move on the forefront of innovative assessment and treatment techniques within this area and endeavors to identify the most effective and efficient methods of assessment, treatment, and caregiver training. Utilizing both indirect and direct measures, the underlying functions of challenging behaviors are ascertained. Treatment interventions are then tailored to fit the individual. Our research publications in these areas have addressed rumination, bruxism, aggression, disruption, and self-injury, among others.

Independent Living and Adaptive Skills

Individuals with autism often exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior, such as delays in acquiring skills necessary for living independently and safely in their daily lives. Like any other behavior, these skills can be directly taught using ABA-based procedures. CARD research publications in this area have evaluated procedures for teaching pill-swallowing, liquid medication administration, and household safety, among others.

The Role of Technology in Behavioral Intervention

CARD has been a leader in the development of innovative applications of information technology to the treatment of autism and for the dissemination of applied behavior analysis. CARD’S web-based toolkit, Skills®, is the most comprehensive assessment, curriculum, and treatment management system in existence for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder. Empirical research on several aspects of the system is ongoing and studies have already been published on components of the assessment and staff training systems. All CARD employees are given access to Skills®.

Pediatric Feeding Disorders

Feeding disorders are characterized by difficulties with eating or drinking that result in poor weight and/or nutrition.  Common forms of feeding problems include partial or total food/liquid refusal and food/liquid selectivity by type and/or texture.  Feeding problems are common in all populations.  25% of individuals of typical development and up to 80% of individuals with developmental disabilities present some sort of feeding disorder during childhood. CARD is actively pursuing several directions of research in the field of feeding disorders. For example, we are continually attempting to identify the least intrusive interventions necessary to effectively treat feeding disorders. Additionally, new methods to ease the transition from technicians to the caregiver and from center to home are being researched. As each individual comes to CARD as an individual, CARD works to learn which specific intervention(s) will be successful with each individual. Caregivers are not only trained to implement working protocols but are taught to understand why the protocols are effective. CARD research publications in feeding disorders have addressed caregiver-mediated treatment and stimulus fading, among others.

Language and Basic Verbal Operants

Autism is characterized by delays in language development and the remediation of these delays is a foundational component of ABA treatment for autism. Our language intervention research program at CARD focuses on establishing basic receptive and expressive language, including basic verbal operants, such as echoics, mands, tacts, and intraverbals. We are currently identifying novel intervention procedures which hold promise, as well as empirically evaluating commonly used but under-researched teaching procedures. In addition, special attention is paid to identifying which teaching procedure is likely to benefit which particular individual, depending on each individual characteristics.

Higher-Order Cognitive, Verbal, and Social Skills

Applied behavior analysis is often criticized on the grounds that the treatment approach produces only simplistic, “rote,” or “robotic” behavior. Criticisms such as these are typically espoused by individuals with little familiarity with good-quality ABA therapy. However, more research is needed in the area of higher-order skills and cognitive abilities, particularly in individuals with autism. A significant amount of behavior analytic research in the past 20 years, commonly referred to as Stimulus Equivalence and Relational Frame Theory research has begun to isolate the basic behavioral processes behind complex language, cognition, and understanding. Our research in these areas focuses on extending basic research to the establishment and analysis of higher-order skills in individuals with autism. To that end, we are evaluating procedures for teaching skills in areas commonly referred to as “cognition” and “executive function.” Published CARD research protocols in these areas of addressed perspective-taking, working memory, and rule-governed behavior.

Procedural and Methodological Innovations

Many behavioral procedures and methods are of known effectiveness but may be enhanced or made more efficient, thereby potentially saving time and money in the assessment and treatment process. We are engaged in ongoing research examining details of common assessment and treatment procedures, such as methods of data collection, data analysis, and duration of functional assessments, etc. Published CARD studies in these areas have addressed first-trial data collection and electronic data collection, among others.

Research

2018

Hong, E., Dixon, D. R., Stevens, E., Burns, C. O., & Linstead, E. (2018). Topography and function of challenging behaviors in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41252-018-0063-7

2017

Burns, C., Dixon, D. R., Novack, M., & Granpeesheh, D. (2017). A systematic review of assessments for sensory processing abnormalities in autism spectrum disorder. Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 4(3), 209–224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40489-017-0109-1

Burns, C. O., Hong, E., & Dixon, D. R. (2017). Institutional review boards and standards. In J. L. Matson (Ed.), Handbook of treatments for autism spectrum disorder (pp. 59–66). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-61738-1_4

Dixon, D.R., Burns, C.O., Granpeesheh, D., Amarasinghe, R., Powell, A., & Linstead, E. (2017). A program evaluation of home and center-based treatment for autism spectrum disorder. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 10(3), 307–312. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-016-0155-7

Hong, E., & Dixon, D. R. (2017). Pica in individuals with developmental disabilities. In J. L. Matson (Ed.), Handbook of childhood psychopathology and developmental disabilities treatment (pp. 287–299). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71210-9_17

Linstead, E., Dixon, D. R., French, R., Granpeesheh, D., Adams, H., German, R., … Kornack, J. (2017). Intensity and learning outcomes in the treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder. Behavior Modification, 41(2), 229–252. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445516667059

Linstead, E., Dixon, D.R., Hong, E., Burns, C.O., French, R., Novack, M.N., & Granpeesheh, D. (2017). An evaluation of the effects of intensity and duration on outcomes across treatment domains for children with autism spectrum disorder. Translational Psychiatry, 7(9), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2017.207

2016

Dixon, D. R., Linstead, E., Granpeesheh, D., Novack, M. N., French, R., Stevens, E., … Powel, A. (2016). An Evaluation of the impact of supervision intensity, supervisor qualifications, and caseload on outcomes in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 9(4), 339–348. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-016-0132-1

Frye, R., Cox, D., Slattery, J., Tippett, M., Kahler, S., Granpeesheh, D., … Goldenthal, M. (2016). Mitochondrial dysfunction may explain symptom variation in phelan-mcdermid syndrome. Scientific Reports, 6, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep19544

Jang, J., Mehta, A., & Dixon, D. R. (2016). Safety skills. In Singh. N. (Ed.), Handbook of evidence-based practices in intellectual and developmental disabilities (pp. 923–941). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-26583-4_36

2015

Zwaigenbaum, L., Bauman, M. L., Choueiri, R., Fein, D., Kasari, C., Pierce, K., … Wetherby, A. (2015). Early identification and interventions for autism spectrum disorder: Executive summary. Pediatrics, 136(S1), S1–S9. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-3667B

Zwaigenbaum, L., Bauman, M. L., Choueiri, R., Kasari, C., Carter, A., Granpeesheh, D., … others. (2015). Early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder under 3 years of age: recommendations for practice and research. Pediatrics, 136(S1), S60–S81. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-3667E

Zwaigenbaum, L., Bauman, M. L., Fein, D., Pierce, K., Buie, T., Davis, P., … Wagner, S. (2015). Early screening of autism spectrum disorder: Recommendations for practice and research. Pediatrics, 136(S41), S41–S59. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-3667D

Zwaigenbaum, L., Bauman, M. L., Stone, W. L., Yirmiya, N., Estes, A., Hansen, R. L., … others. (2015). Early identification of autism spectrum disorder: recommendations for practice and research. Pediatrics, 136(Supplement 1), S10–S40. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-3667C

2014

Bergstrom, R., Najdowski, A. C., & Tarbox, J. (2014). A systematic replication of teaching children with autism to respond appropriately to lures from strangers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47(4), 861–865. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaba.175

Granpeesheh, D., Tarbox, J., Najdowski, A. C., & Kornack, J. (2014). Evidence-based treatment for children with autism: The CARD model. Waltham, MA: Elsevier.

Kornack, J., Persicke, A., Cervantes, P., Jang, J., & Dixon, D.R. (2014). Economics of autism spectrum disorders: An overview of treatment and research funding. In Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Sturmey, P. & Matson, J. L. (Eds.) Handbook of Early Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders (pp. 165–178). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0401-3_9

Najdowski, A. C., & Gould, E. R. (2014). Behavioral family intervention. In J. K. Luiselli (Ed.), Children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): Recent advances and innovations in assessment, education, and intervention (pp. 237–253). New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.

Najdowski, A. C., Gould, E. R., Lanagan, T. M., & Bishop, M. R. (2014). Designing curriculum program for children with autism. In J. Tarbox, D. R. Dixon, P. Sturmey, & J. L Matson (Eds.), Handbook of early intervention for autism spectrum disorders (pp. 227–259). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0401-3_10

Persicke, A., Bishop, M. R., Coffman, C. M., Najdowski, A. C., Tarbox, J., Chi, K., … Deering, A. (2014). Evaluation of the concurrent validity of a skills assessment for autism treatment. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8(3), 281–285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.12.011

Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Sturmey, P. & Matson, J. L. (2014). Handbook of early interventions for autism spectrum disorders. New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0401-3

Tarbox, J., & Najdowski, A. C. (2014). Teaching cognitive skills to children with autism. In J. Tarbox, D.R. Dixon, P. Sturmey, & J. L. Matson (Eds.), Handbook of early intervention for autism spectrum disorders (pp. 452–473). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0401-3_18

2013

Bishop, M. R., Kenzer, A. L., Coffman, C. M., Tarbox, C. M., Tarbox, J., & Lanagan, T. M. (2013). Using stimulus fading without escape extinction to increase compliance with toothbrushing in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(6), 680–686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.02.004

Dixon, D. R., Jang, J., Chung, K. M., Jung, W. H., & Matson, J. L. (2013). A Korean language translation of the Questions About Behavior Function: Initial psychometric evaluation. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 34(6), 1917-1921. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.03.005

Granpeesheh, D., Najdowski, A. C., & Gould, E. R. (2013). Maximizing global access to effective treatment: Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD), CARD eLearning, and Skills. In S. Goldstein & J. A. Naglieri (Eds.), Intervention for autism spectrum disorders: Translating science into practice (pp. 129–152). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-5301-7_7

Persicke, A., St. Clair, M., Tarbox, J., Najdowski, A., Ranick, J., Yu, Y., & de Nocker, Y. L. (2013). Teaching children with autism to attend to socially relevant stimuli. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(12), 1551–1557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.09.002

Persicke, A., Tarbox, J., Ranick, J., & St. Clair, M. (2013). Teaching children with autism to detect and respond to sarcasm. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(1), 193–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.08.005

Ranick, J., Persicke, A., Tarbox, J., & Kornack, J. A. (2013). Teaching children with autism to detect and respond to deceptive statements. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(4), 503–508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.12.001

Stewart, I., Tarbox, J., Roche, B., & O’Hora, D. P. (2013). Education, intellectual development, and relational frame theory. In S. Dymon & B. Roche (Eds.), Advances in relational frame theory: Research and applications. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Tarbox, J., Najdowski, A. C., Bergstrom, R., Wilke, A., Bishop, M., Kenzer, A., & Dixon, D. (2013). Randomized evaluation of a web-based tool for designing function-based behavioral intervention plans. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 7(12), 1509–1517. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2013.08.005

Tarbox, J., & Persicke, A. (2013). Treatment of working memory in autism. In V. B. Patel, V. R. Preedy, & C. R. Martin (Eds.), Comprehensive guide to autism (pp. 2159-2171). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4788-7_133

Tarbox, J., Persicke, A., & Kenzer, A. (2013). Home-based services. In D. D. Reed, F. D. DiGennaro Red, & J. K. Luiselli (Eds.), Handbook of crisis intervention and developmental disabilities (pp. 331–349). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6531-7_19

2012

Baltruschat, L., Hasselhorn, M., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Najdowski, A., David Mullins, R., & Gould, E. (2012). The effects of multiple exemplar training on a working memory task involving sequential responding in children with autism. Psychological Record, 62(3), 549-562. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395820

Bergstrom, R., Najdowski, A. C., & Tarbox, J. (2012). Teaching children with autism to seek help when lost in public. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45(1), 191–195. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2012.45-191

Bishop, M. R., & Kenzer, A. L. (2012). Teaching behavioral therapist to conduct brief preference assessments during therapy sessions. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(1), 450–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.07.005

Dixon, D. R., Vogel, T., & Tarbox, J. (2012). A brief history of functional analysis and applied behavior analysis. In J. L. Matson (Ed.), Functional assessment for challenging behaviors (pp. 3–24). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3037-7_2

Jang, J., Dixon, D. R., Tarbox, J., Granpeesheh, D., Kornack, J., & de Nocker, Y. (2012). Randomized trial of an eLearning program for training family members of children with autism in the principles and procedures of applied behavior analysis. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(2), 852-856. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.11.004

Najdowski, A. C., Tarbox, J., & Wilke, A. E. (2012). Utilizing antecedent manipulations and reinforcement in the treatment of food selectivity by texture. Education and Treatment of Children, 35(1), 101–110. https://doi.org/10.1353/etc.2012.0004

Persicke, A., Tarbox, J., Ranick, J., & St. Clair, M. (2012). Establishing metaphorical reasoning in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(2), 913–920. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.12.007

Tarbox, J., Kenzer, A. L., & Bishop, M. R. (2012). Ruminative vomiting. In J. K. Luiselli (Ed.), Handbook of high-risk challenging behaviors in people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (pp. 177–194). Baltimore, MA: Brookes Publishing.

Teagardin, J., Dixon, D. R., Smith, M. N., & Granpeesheh, D. (2012). Randomized trial of law enforcement training on autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(3), 1113-1118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2012.02.002

Wilke, A. E., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Kenzer, A. L., Bishop, M. R., & Kakavand, H. (2012). Indirect functional assessment of stereotypy in children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6(2), 824–828. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.11.003

2011

Baltruschat, L., Hasselhorn, M., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Najdowski, A. C., Mullins, R. D., & Gould, E. R. (2011a). Addressing working memory in children with autism through behavioral intervention. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 267–276. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.04.008

Baltruschat, L., Hasselhorn, M., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Najdowski, A. C., Mullins, R. D., & Gould, E. R. (2011b). Further analysis of the effects of positive reinforcement on working memory in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(2), 855–863. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.09.015

Bergstrom, R., Tarbox, J., & Gutshall, K. A. (2011). Behavioral intervention for domestic pet mistreatment in a young child with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 218–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.04.002

DeLeon, I. G., Gregory, M. K., Frank-Crawford, M. A., Allman, M. J., Wilke, A. E., Carreau-Webster, A. B., & Triggs, M. M. (2011). Examination of the influence of contingency on changes in reinforcer value. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(3), 543–558. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2011.44-543

Dixon, D. R., Granpeesheh, D., Tarbox, J., & Smith, M. N. (2011). Early detection of autism spectrum disorders. In J. L. Matson & P. Sturmey (Eds.), International handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (pp. 197–214). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-8065-6_12

Dixon, D. R., Tarbox, J., Najdowski, A. C., Wilke, A. E., & Granpeesheh, D. (2011). A comprehensive evaluation of language for early behavioral intervention programs: The reliability of the SKILLS Language Index. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 506–511. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.06.016

Gould, E., Dixon, D. R., Najdowski, A. C., Smith, M. N., & Tarbox, J. (2011). A review of assessments for determining the content of early intensive behavioral intervention programs for autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(3), 990–1002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2011.01.012

Gould, E., Tarbox, J., O’Hora, D., Noone, S., & Bergstrom, R. (2011). Teaching children with autism a basic component skill of perspective-taking. Behavioral Interventions, 26(1), 50–66. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.320

Jang, J., Dixon, D. R., Tarbox, J., & Granpeesheh, D. (2011). Symptom severity and challenging behavior in children with ASD. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(3), 1028–1032. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.11.008

Jepson, B., Granpeesheh, D., Tarbox, J., Olive, M. L., Stott, C., Braud, S., … Allen, M. S. (2011). Controlled evaluation of the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the behavior of 16 children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(5), 575–588. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-010-1075-y

Kenzer, A. L., & Bishop, M. R. (2011a). Evaluating preference for familiar and novel stimuli across a large group of children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(2), 819–825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.09.011

Kenzer, A. L., & Bishop, M. R. (2011b). Evaluating preference for familiar and novel stimuli across a large group of children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(2), 819–825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.09.011

Lerman, D. C., Dittlinger, L. H., Fentress, G., & Lanagan, T. (2011). A comparison of methods for collecting data on performance during discrete trial teaching. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 4(1), 53–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391775

Salseda, L. M., Dixon, D. R., Fass, T., Miora, D., & Leark, R. A. (2011). An evaluation of Miranda rights and interrogation in autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 79–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.06.014

Schiff, A., Tarbox, J., Lanagan, T., & Farag, P. (2011). Establishing compliance with liquid medication administration in a child with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44(2), 381–385. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2011.44-381

Summers, J., Tarbox, J., Findel-Pyles, R. S., Wilke, A. E., Bergstrom, R., & Williams, W. L. (2011). Teaching two household safety skills to children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5(1), 629–632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2010.07.008

Tarbox, J., Najdowski, A. C., & Lanagan, T. M. (2011). Behavioral observation and measurement. In J. K. Luiselli (Ed.), Teaching and behavior support for children and adults with autism spectrum disorder: A practitioner’s guide (pp. 5–12). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Tarbox, J., Zuckerman, C. K., Bishop, M. R., Olive, M. L., & O’Hora, D. P. (2011). Rule-governed behavior: Teaching a preliminary repertoire of rule-following to children with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 27(1), 125–139. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03393096

2010

Dixon, D. R., Bergstrom, R., Smith, M. N., & Tarbox, J. (2010). A review of research on procedures for teaching safety skills to persons with developmental disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(5), 985–994. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2010.03.007

Dixon, D. R., Tarbox, J., & Najdowski, A. (2010). Social skills in autism spectrum disorders. In J. L. Matson (Ed.), Social behavior and skills in children (pp. 117–140). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0234-4_7

Finegold, S. M., Dowd, S. E., Gontcharova, V., Liu, C., Henley, K. E., Wolcott, R. D., … Green, J. A. (2010). Pyrosequencing study of fecal microflora of autistic and control children. Anaerobe, 16(4), 444–453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2010.06.008

Granpeesheh, D., & Najdowski, A. C. (2010). CARD e-Learning and Skills: Web-based training, assessment, curriculum and progress tracking for children with autism. In K. Siri & T. Lyons (Eds.), Cutting-edge therapies for autism (pp. 86–91). New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing.

Granpeesheh, D., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Peters, C. A., Thompson, K., & Kenzer, A. (2010). Evaluation of an eLearning tool for training behavioral therapists in academic knowledge of applied behavior analysis. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(1), 11–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2009.07.004

Granpeesheh, D., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Wilke, A. E., Allen, M. S., & Bradstreet, J. J. (2010). Randomized trial of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(2), 268–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2009.09.014

Hess, J. A., Matson, J. L., & Dixon, D. R. (2010). Psychiatric symptom endorsements in children and adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders: A comparison to typically developing children and adolescents. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 22(5), 485–496. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-009-9185-1

Najdowski, A. C., Wallace, M. D., Reagon, K., Penrod, B., Higbee, T. S., & Tarbox, J. (2010). Utilizing a home-based parent training approach in the treatment of food selectivity. Behavioral Interventions, 25(2), 89–107. https://doi.org/10.1002/bin.298

Olive, M. (2010). Missy and Mac. In J. Johnson & A. Van Rensselaer (Eds.), Siblings: The autism spectrum through our eyes (pp. 59–70). London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Olive, M. L. (2010). Treating autism: The time is now. The Autism File, (35).

Olive, M. L., Tarbox, J., & Boutot, E. A. (2010). Teaching students with autism using the principles of applied behavior analysis. In B. Myles & E. A. Boutot (Eds.), Autism Education and Practice. Pearson.

Tarbox, J., & Granpeesheh, D. (2010). Applied behavior analysis: What makes a great ABA program? Sorting through the science, the brands, and the acronyms. In K. Siri & T. Lyons (Eds.), Cutting-edge therapies for autism (pp. 35–41). New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing.

Tarbox, J., Schiff, A., & Najdowski, A. C. (2010). Parent-implemented procedural modification of escape extinction in the treatment of food selectivity in a young child with autism. Education and Treatment of Children, 33(2), 223–234. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42900064

Tarbox, J., Wilke, A. E., Findel-Pyles, R. S., Bergstrom, R. M., & Granpeesheh, D. (2010). A comparison of electronic to traditional pen-and-paper data collection in discrete trial training for children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4(1), 65–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2009.07.008

Woods, J. S., Armel, S. E., Fulton, D. I., Allen, J., Wessels, K., Simmonds, P. L., … Rooney, J. P. K. (2010). Urinary porphyrin excretion in neurotypical and autistic children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(10), 1450–1457. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.0901713

2009

Barnoy, E. L., Najdowski, A. C., Tarbox, J., Wilke, A. E., & Nollet, M. D. (2009). Evaluation of a multicomponent intervention for diurnal bruxism in a young child with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(4), 845–848. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2009.42-845

Dixon, D. R., Garcia, M., Granpeesheh, D., & Tarbox, J. (2009). Differential diagnosis in autism spectrum disorders. In J. L. Matson (Ed.), Applied behavior analysis for children with autism spectrum disorders (pp. 83–108). New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-0088-3_5

Granpeesheh, D., & Dixon, D. R. (2009). Treating the whole child: An integration of biomedical and behavioral interventions. The Autism File, 31, 119–121. Retrieved from http://www.autismone.com/sites/default/files/AFUSA31_Granpeesheh.pdf

Granpeesheh, D., Dixon, D. R., Tarbox, J., Kaplan, A. M., & Wilke, A. E. (2009). The effects of age and treatment intensity on behavioral intervention outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3(4), 1014–1022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rasd.2009.06.007

Granpeesheh, D., Tarbox, B. J., & Dixon, D. R. (2009). Applied behavior analytic intervention for children with autism: A description and review of treatment research. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 21(3), 162–73.

Granpeesheh, D., Tarbox, J., Dixon, D. R., Carr, E., & Herbert, M. (2009). Retrospective analysis of clinical records in 38 cases of recovery from autism. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 21(4), 195–204.

Najdowski, A. C., Chilingaryan, V., Bergstrom, R., Granpeesheh, D., Balasanyan, S., Aguilar, B., & Tarbox, J. (2009). Comparison of data-collection methods in a behavioral intervention program for children with pervasive developmental disorders: A replication. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(4), 827–832. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2009.42-827

Rhine, D., & Tarbox, J. (2009). Chewing gum as a treatment for rumination in a child with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 381–385. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2009.42-381

Tarbox, J., Madrid, W., Aguilar, B., Jacobo, W., & Schiff, A. (2009). Use of changing to increase complexity of echoics in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(4), 901–906. https://doi.org/10.1901/jaba.2009.42-901

Tarbox, J., Tarbox, R., & O’Hora, D. P. (2009). Nonrelational and relational instructional control. In R. A. Rehfeldt & Y. Barnes-Holmes (Eds.), Derived relational responding applications for learners with autism and other developmental disabilities: A progressive guide to change (pp. 111–127). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Tarbox, J., Wilke, A. E., Najdowski, A. C., Findel-Pyles, R. S., Balasanyan, S., Caveney, A. C., … Tia, B. (2009). Comparing indirect, descriptive, and experimental functional assessments of challenging behavior in children with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 21(6), 493–514. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-009-9154-8

Wallace, M. D., & Najdowski, A. C. (2009). Differential reinforcement of other behavior and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior. In W. O’Donohue & J. E. Fisher (Eds.), General principles and empirically supported techniques of cognitive behavior (pp. 245–255). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

2008

Granpeesheh, D. (2008). Recovery from autism: Learning why and how to make it happen. Autism Advocate, 50(1), 54–60.

Granpeesheh, D., & Tarbox, J. (2008a). Applied behavior analysis: Addressing cognitive and emotional development in children with autism. Autism Advocate, 53(4), 44–48.

Granpeesheh, D., & Tarbox, J. (2008b). Applied behavior analysis and autism. In the Healing Project (Ed.), Voice of autism (pp. 99–109). New York, NY: LaChance Publishing.

Wright, H., Sharma, S., Gurakar, A., Sebastian, A., Kohli, V., & Jabbour, N. (2008). Management of biliary stricture guided by the Spyglass Direct Visualization System in a liver transplant recipient: an innovative approach. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 67(7), 1201–1203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2007.10.055

Yoo, J. H., Tarbox, J., & Granpeesheh, D. (2008). Using stimulus fading to teach a young child with autism to ingest wireless capsule endoscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 67(7), 1203–1204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2007.10.048